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ERIC Number: ED102032
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1974-Mar-20
Pages: 23
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
The Learning of Peace.
Boulding, Kenneth E.
The international system exhibits very sharp phase boundaries, the most striking of which is the boundary between war and peace. A phase boundary for water would be the difference between water and ice, influenced by pressure and temperature. Similarly the phase boundary between war and peace is influenced by national strength and stress. Although the measure of strength and stress is difficult, stress- and strength-related variables can be identified and studied. Also, examined over a long period of time, the system shows four "phase conditions," distinguished by the probability of peace or war: stable war, unstable war, unstable peace, and stable peace. A categorization of variables not completely analogous to stress and strength, but of use conceptually, are (1) the components of a threat system--size of war industry, use of threats in international communication, for instance; (2) integrative patterns of trade, communication, tourism, or diplomatic relations. Yet, the dynamic processes which carry the system from one point to another must be considered. All these processes involve a change in perception of the world. A widened area of stable peace has been the result of a long cumulative learning process about the nature of community and the strength of integrative bonds. This process is facilitated by all intellectual attempts to understand it. (JH)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Presidential address delivered at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association (St. Louis, Missouri, March 1974)