ERIC Number: ED101854
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1974-Aug-30
Reference Count: 0
Effects of Cooperative, Competitive, and Individualized Goal Structures on Learning Outcomes.
Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.
A theoretical orientation to three goal structures (cooperation, competition, and individualization) is postulated, based upon Deutsch's extension of Lewin's theory of motivation. Lewin postulated that a state of tension within a person motivates movement toward the accomplishment of desired goals; a goal structure specifies the type of interdependence existing among persons as they work towards goal accomplishment. Discussion focuses on the conditions under which each goal structure may be productively used in instruction, the research relating to the overuse and inappropriate use of competition, and the research on the effects of cooperative goal structure on the coutcomes of instruction. Briefly summarized are the findings of the research now available in social psychology and education on the effects of goal structures on education. The results of the research overwhelmingly point to the need to train teachers in the procedures for all goal structures appropriately. (CS)
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 30, 1974)