ERIC Number: ED100773
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1974
Reference Count: 0
Historical Perspectives on Non-Formal Education. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education. Team Reports.
Grandstaff, Marvin; And Others
Historical perspectives on nonformal education are examined in this report which is one of a series on nonformal education. Background information for the series is included in document SO 008 058. Chapter 1 relates nonformal education to the concept of development now held by such international assistance agencies as the World Bank and UNESCO. Chapter 2 summarizes recent efforts to expand and reconstruct the concept of development. Chapter 3 examines the theoretical basis for historical patterns in educational history. Chapter 4 analyzes the impact of cultural evolution on educational formalization and includes the impact of elites, ideological uniformity, symbolization of behavior, and management of surplus energy. Chapter 5 discusses the relationship between ways in which people are accustomed to learn and the ways in which teaching is conducted. The sixth chapter examines the work of Paul Goodman and the impact of civic and occupational life on educational arrangements. Chapter 7 analyzes the work of Marshall McLuhan and how patterns of perception form cognition and how cognitive styles determine cultural character. Chapter 8 reviews Ivan Illich's concept of "deschooling" or returning educational activities to their functional roots. The ninth chapter examines Paulo Friere's idea of using nonformal education to raise consciousness and free the oppressed. The final chapter presents the author's conclusions in regard to the previous chapters. (DE)
Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Cultural Influences, Developing Nations, Development, Educational Development, Educational History, Educational Objectives, Educational Theories, International Education, Learning, Nonformal Education, Nontraditional Education, Relevance (Education), Social Influences
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Inst. for International Studies in Education.
Note: For related documents, see SO 008 058-064