ERIC Number: ED100497
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1974-Aug
Reference Count: 0
The Effects of Different Reinforcement Systems on Cooperative Behaviors Exhibited by Children in Classroom Contexts.
Buckholdt, David R.; And Others
This paper describes a series of experiments which indicate how different reinforcement systems affect cooperative, competitive, and individualized learning structures. Following a brief literature review of prior research, the experiments investigated (1) individual reinforcement for peer tutoring and (2) shared-group reinforcement for peer tutoring. They examined the effects of reinforcement by demonstrating how reward structures can interact with several independent variables in controlling the frequency of cooperative behavior. The studies support the idea that children from various socioeconomic classes, 3-to 11-years-old, in classrooms of 4-17 members, can work together effectively in cooperative instructional situations involving curriculum materials such as mathematics, vocabulary development, and reading. Also, the results indicate that when appropriate reinforcement is provided for cooperative behavior, helping behaviors as well as student performance are increased. Several research topics are suggested for future research on the development and evaluation of cooperative goal structures. (SDH)
Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Behavior Change, Competition, Contingency Management, Cooperation, Elementary School Students, Interaction Process Analysis, Language Acquisition, Learning Theories, Literature Reviews, Mathematics Education, Peer Relationship, Peer Teaching, Preschool Children, Reading Development, Reinforcement, Tutoring
Publication Type: Speeches/Meeting Papers
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Center for Studies of Crime and Delinquency.
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 30-September 3, 1974)