ERIC Number: ED099611
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1973
Reference Count: N/A
Black Vocational Technical and Industrial Arts Education: Development and History.
Hall, Clyde W.
Since coverage of the history of industrial training of blacks in the United States is lacking, the author has compiled a single volume tracing this history from the plantation era. All phases are described--early schools prior to 1865, private and public industrial institutions of higher education, private institutions of higher education offering industrial courses, private industrial secondary schools, and public secondary schools with industrial programs. Between 1830-60, manual labor schools were established in the North, schools isolated without a market for products. After the Civil War, the North favored classical education for blacks versus industrial training by the South. Between 1880 and 1890, Booker T. Washington advocated mostly vocational industrial education in trades. The Second Morrill Act of 1890 gave new life to land-grant college education for blacks. About 1900 secondary industrial schools were founded similar to the Hampton and Tuskegee Institutes. Passage of the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 began a new era of industrial training for public secondary schools. However, prior to 1954 numerous inequities existed; courses for blacks often were limited to janitorial services, tailoring/upholstering, and woodworking. During the 1930s, institutions of higher learning began evalating their industrial programs and creating industrial teacher programs. (EA)
Descriptors: Black Colleges, Black Education, Black Employment, Black History, Black Institutions, Blacks, Educational Development, Educational Trends, Federal Legislation, Higher Education, Industrial Training, Labor Force Development, Private Colleges, Private Schools, Public Education, Secondary Schools, Trade and Industrial Education, Vocational Education
American Technical Society, 848 East 58th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 ($6.00)
Publication Type: Books
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A