ERIC Number: ED099412
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1973-Dec
The Promotion/Retention Dilemma: What Research Tells Us. Report No. 7416.
Reiter, Robert G.
A review of the literature in 1965 revealed considerable research into the respective merits of policies of (1) automatic promotion for all pupils, and (2) rigid retention-in-grade for those whose achievement was judged deficient. Although neither extreme was a panacea, promotion appeared to have fewer disadvantages than retention. Pupils who repeated one or more grades tended to become discouraged by their conspicuous failure and to be no better off at the end of their schooling than if they had been promoted each year with their age-mates. Studies since 1965 have suggested that for maximal learning to take place, the crucial issue is how the individual pupil is treated in his school--including how he is either promoted or retained--rather than the adoption of one policy or another. They call for (1) human treatment of each pupil as a person of value, and (2) creative provision of appropriate learning tasks in which the individual pupil can experience success. To assure these conditions, the role of the educator who works with each pupil is no less critical than that of the policy maker. (Author/RC)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Philadelphia School District, PA. Office of Research and Evaluation.