ERIC Number: ED099323
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1974-Mar
Reference Count: 0
Educational Influences on Career Opportunities for Women. Teacher Education Forum Series. Vol. 2, No. 13.
Kimmel, Marcia S.
Ambivalent feelings about achievement and success which affect the career choices of women are caused by the kind of educational experiences prevalent in the United States today. The distinction between sexes is recognized by children at age 2 and by kindergarten, girls show dependency in achievement-related situations. During their elementary school years, a significant number of females show a decline in intelligence test scores. The reinforcement of sex-role stereotypes takes place continually in schools, and the resulting conflict between being feminine and being successful causes young women to show an increasing tendency as they progress through high school and college to exhibit anxiety in achievement-related situations. In recent studies, the motive to avoid success was fairly commonplace among women--47 percent among junior high school students, rising progressively to 88 percent among college women. The educational system must develop an awareness of the ways in which it belittles the achievements of women. Textbooks and other materials which promote stereotypic images of women must be revised, and teachers should receive awareness training to discourage prolongation of inequality between the sexes. (HMD)
Publication Type: Books
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Bureau of Educational Personnel Development (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Indiana Univ., Bloomington. School of Education.
Note: For related documents, see ED 075 913, 076 572, 089 237, 096 262-271, and SP 008 614-636