ERIC Number: ED094860
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1972-Oct
Reference Count: N/A
Feedback: Educational Strategies.
Zimmerman, Barry J.; Ghozeil, Sue
Seven investigations of modeling as a teaching technique are reviewed in this paper. Children in the individual projects varied, but included Anglo-Americans and Mexican-Americans from the kindergarten, and second, third and fifth grades. Modeling effects were examined in the following areas of teaching concern: (1) concept formation, transfer and retention; (2) associative and conceptual rules of learning; (3) amount of organization in teaching a skill or concept; (4) selection of shapes; (5) question-asking behavior; (6) creativity; and (7) conservation. Methods of investigation and results are described individually for each project. Seven recommendations for classroom teaching practices are discussed. These recommendations concern the organization of a learning task, verbal instructions, supplementing overt behavior (modeling) with verbal explanations (symbolic modeling), modeling and physical guidance in a task, viewing a model silently and with discussion, performance of a task after modeling, and corrective feedback. (SDH)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Arizona Univ., Tucson. Arizona Center for Early Childhood Education.