ERIC Number: ED092240
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1974
Reference Count: N/A
A Review of the Teacher Expectancy Effect: The Question of Preponderant Causation.
West, Charles K.
This discussion of teacher expectations attempts to delineate the research steps that are needed to convincingly validate or invalidate the Pygmalion Effect. Five elements of expectancy effects are identified: (1) Information provided to teachers, (2) their expectancies, (3) behavior, (4) children's achievement and (5) intelligence. An examination of each of these elements and the linkages among them, in reference to the existing teacher expectancy research, suggests numerous alternative hypotheses and explanations to those in the literature. The literature review analyzes each study in terms of effects demonstrated, teacher characteristics, and the linkages investigated. Reinterpretation of these reports indicates the existence of "class 2" linkages, for example, student achievement influencing teacher behavior and expectancy rather than "class I" linkages in which the teacher expectancies influence the child's performance. The ethical and practical dangers of expectancy research are emphasized, particularly with regard to unfair criticism of the teacher. The need for careful interpretation of such research is based on the methodological, as well as logical and empirical uncertainty of the area. Finally, the report suggests four areas of research that would be most helpful in clarifying the issues discussed. (DP)
Publication Type: Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: ERIC Clearinghouse on Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.