ERIC Number: ED089678
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1974-Apr
Reference Count: N/A
Television, Background Characteristics and Learning in El Salvador's Educational Reform.
Hornik, Robert C.
The use of instructional television (ITV) as part of an educational reform in grades 7, 8 and 9 El Salvador had a positive effect upon learning. This was achieved despite inequities in cognitive skills related to student background factors and inequities in resource distribution. In selected schools, 75% of the variance in cognitive skills in grade 7 could be predicted from background factors; this dropped to 66% after three years' participation in the reform program. In addition, students in reformed schools using ITV showed greater achievement than their counterparts in reformed schools without ITV. These results run counter to findings in the United States where background factors continue to dominate over innovations. There are at least three possible explanations. First, the El Salvador study used a longitudinal rather than a one-shot, cross-sectional approach. Second, ITV might have had a greater impact in El Salvador because it represented a larger and qualitatively more significant input to the system, relative to the previously existing levels of service. Finally, the ITV was of consistent quality, whereas innovations in the United States often vary in quality. (LB)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Stanford Univ., CA. Inst. for Communication Research.
Identifiers - Location: El Salvador; United States