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ERIC Number: ED088617
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1974-Apr
Pages: 33
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
Federal and State Roles in the Education of Indians: The California Experience, 1850-1934.
Hendrick, Irving G.
The report investigated the educational policy of Federal and state governments toward American Indians in California from 1850 to 1934. In California the fate of official efforts and non-efforts at educating Indians can be divided into 3 distinct periods. The period between 1849 and 1870 was a time when virtually nothing was attempted. Between 1870 and 1920 the principal focus was on education in Federal day and boarding schools. Finally, by the third decade of the present century the public schools assumed primary responsibility for Indian education. The dominant theme of this report was the sheer physical destruction and exploitation of Indians by white settlers, often with at least the passive support of the state government. Educated estimates place the Indian population as high as 260,000 in 1769; 100,000 in 1848 at the dawn of the American period; and less than 20,000 by 1880. For all its inadequacies and misadventures which became legend over the next century, the Federal government did assume responsibility for some measure of Indian welfare. The state, on the other hand, focused most of its efforts on exclusion. The election of Franklin Roosevelt in 1932 and the arrival on the national scene of Commissioner of Indian Affairs John Collier produced a substantial shift in national attitudes toward Indians. (FF)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: California