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ERIC Number: ED085611
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1971
Pages: 19
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
Modification of 'Here-and-Now' Affective, Feedback and Empathic Verbalizations in Led and Leaderless Groups.
Fromme, Donald K.; And Others
The purpose of the present study was to determine if a procedure could be devised to eliminate the need for a therapist in reinforcing for expressions of affect, feedback, or empathy. Twenty-six male and 22 female undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to 12 "human relations" groups, comprising three replications of four conditions: 1. instructions only (I); 2. instructions plus feedback (IF); 3. instructions plus therapist (IT); 4. instructions plus feedback and therapist (IFT). Ss in all four conditions received instructions suggesting that open, frank discussions were facilitated by focusing on each individual's 'here-and-now' feelings, whether positive or negative, by providing feedback about how actions of the others affected S's feelings, and by empathizing or trying to understand the other's feelings. Three therapists were assigned to one replication of each of the two therapist conditions, Ss in the feedback conditions were told that the digital counters with attached red lights which were placed in front of them would provide them with information about how well they were following instructions. Analysis of variance yielded significant effects for feedback and therapist, suggesting that operant techniques may be as effective as the presence of a therapist in a group, and also serve as an important adjunct. (Author)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A