ERIC Number: ED081058
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1972-Nov
Reference Count: 0
The Effects of Refutational Techniques on Attitude Change.
Reinard, John C., Jr.; Bridges, Dick A.
Little empirical research has been done on the subject of argumentation, especially in the area of refutation, or "disproof," even though some research on debate indicates that refutation constitutes a significant predictor of a team's success. A recent study investigated the effects of eight forms of refutation against five major categories of argument: example, residues, dilemma, analogy, and cause. The refutation techniques included those five argumentative types plus attacks on evidence, attacks on reasoning, and "turning the tables." Results of a survey to determine attitude change on statements relating to a controversial issue (government guarantee of a minimum annual income) indicated that: (1) argument by example is especially persuasive; (2) attack on reasoning, in keeping with traditional theory, is also especially persuasive; and (3) attack on evidence is curiously unpersuasive. There appears to be an inverse relationship between the effectiveness of the type of initial argument and its effectiveness as refutation. In addition, arguments drawn from inductive reasoning appear to be most effectively refuted by arguments in the same category. (RN)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Western Speech Communication Assn. (Honolulu, November, 1972)