ERIC Number: ED080966
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1973-Feb
Reference Count: 0
Stimulus Concreteness and Mode of Elaboration in Children's Learning.
Wicker, Frank W.; Evertson, Carolyn M.
Paired-associate (PA) learning of children was investigated as a function of age, stimulus-type, and mode of elaboration. Sixty nursery school children (average age 53 months) and 60 first graders (average age 84 months) were selected as subjects. Each child studied nine pairs of objects, photographs, or drawings for two trials of PA learning by the recall method. In the visual elaboration conditions, the two items of the pair were presented in some visual relationship to each other during study trials (e.g., spoon holding a candle) as each item was named by the experimenter. In the corresponding verbal elaboration conditions, the items were presented visually, side-by-side, and accompanied by an orally presented sentence (e.g., "The spoon is holding the candle."). Five seconds were given for each item in test trials. The results indicated that photographs and objects were associated with more learning than drawings at both ages and with both types of mediational elaboration; but it was suggested that differences among the three types of pictorial stimuli decrease with age. A previously reported Age X Elaboration interaction suggesting a relative disadvantage of visual elaboration for younger children was not replicated. (WR)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper prepared for the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, February 1973)