ERIC Number: ED079747
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1973-May
Reference Count: 0
Figurative Language: A Neglected Aspect of the Elementary School Language Arts Curriculum. Final Report.
Pollio, Howard R.
Given the rather sparse and somewhat confusing literature dealing with the topic of metaphor and metaphoric usage, this study attempted to (1) determine the basal level of metaphorical usage in grades 3, 4, and 5; (2) evaluate a series of books ("Making It Strange") designed to promote and augment figurative usage in these grades; (3) determine the differences between groups exposed to this series and those using the normal curriculum of the school; and (4) uncover factors in an individual child's test profile that might predispose him to differential metaphorical usage. Conclusions based on the results of the study included: (1) Children use figures of speech (both novel and frozen) in their compositions as early as the third grade, and novel usage seems to decrease over grade level. (2) The experimental program using "Making It Strange" increased the frequency of occurrence of novel figurative usage in the children exposed to this series of compared to their initial output, and as compared to the control groups. Exposure to this series, however, had no effect on the production of frozen figures of speech. (3) There is a strong relationship between frozen figures and length of composition, thereby suggesting that frozen figures might be considered simply as learned vocabulary items. (HOD)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Dept. of Psychology.