ERIC Number: ED079442
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1972
Reference Count: 0
Effects of Direct, Intermittent, and Vicarious Reinforcement Procedures on the Development and Maintenance of Instruction Following Behaviors in a Group of Young Children.
Weisberg, Paul; Clements, Patricia
Twelve children (mean age = 2 1/2 yrs.) were instructed in a group setting to follow a number of different requests by a teacher. In Experiment I, the group's instruction following behavior remained low regardless of whether (1) the teacher provided either modeling or verbal cues or a combination of these two and (2) another adult did or did not comply with the teacher's requests. Neither the adult model nor any of the children ever received explicit reinforcement in Experiment I. In Experiment II, reinforcement was first delivered to the adult demonstrator model for compliance but was never given to any of the child observers. Despite this vicarious reinforcement procedure, the group's behavior was not elevated. When explicit reinforcement was then directly delivered continuously and exclusively during selected sessions to four of the group's members, instruction following by three of these target children was elevated (and later lowered in two cases where extinction procedures pertain). However, the behavior of the remaining nontarget children in the audience remained low. Substantial improvement and maintenance of instruction following obtained in the entire group when each of the members was provided direct but intermittent reinforcement during each session. [Five pages of tabular material have been deleted from this document due to poor reproducibility.] (Author/SB)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Alabama State Dept. of Pensions and Security, Montgomery.
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Parts of this paper were presented at the South Eastern Psychological Association meeting, 1972