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ERIC Number: ED079041
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1972
Pages: 165
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Effects of Varying Time of Presenting Verbal Directions on Recall and Retention.
Hungerford, Eugene William
This study investigated the effect of varying the time at which verbal directions are presented to students involved in a learning situation. Four randomly selected Biology 251 sections (309 students) were pretested on knowledge of symbiosis and found to be equivalent. The intact classes were then assigned at random to four treatments. Each class received an audiotape-slide lecture on symbiosis with instructions presented on slides either before, during, or after the lecture, or not at all. Students then took an immediate posttest of the concepts included in the lecture. The same instrument was used ten days later as a retention test. Only results for students in the upper and lower third of the ranked ACT score range were analyzed, blocking on sex. The main effect for treatment was not significant (neither posttest nor retention test) but significant interactions were found. Using the Scheffe method, it was determined that for high ability students the most effective time to present verbal directions was after instruction, whereas for low ability students the most effective time was during instruction. (MM)
University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 (Order No. 72-24,270 M-$4.00 X-$10.00)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Ed.D. Dissertation, East Texas State University