ERIC Number: ED076579
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1973-Feb
Reference Count: 0
Observer Effect on Teacher Use of Token Reinforcement.
Swoope, Karen F.; Sattler, Howard E.
Data were collected on rate-per-minute of administering token reinforcement for one male and seven female teachers enrolled in a behavior modification seminar. The study was conducted in four self-contained and four open classrooms. In the observer-present condition, data were obtained during 15-minute classroom observation periods. In the observer-absent condition, data were taken from token record cards maintained by pupils. When observer-present and observer-absent conditions were compared, reinforcement rates indicated significantly higher rates of token delivery in the observer-present condition. It was recommended that the observer effect might have serious implications for those programs whose assessment procedures introduced an observer into the classroom to collect data on changes in targeted teacher behavior. (Author/BRB)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, February 1973