ERIC Number: ED074485
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1972-Jul
Reference Count: 0
Individual Differences in Learning and Retention. Final Report.
Shuell, Thomas J.
In this investigation of potential sources of individual differences in free-recall learning and retention by children, learning ability is defined in terms of performance on a free-recall test with the upper and lower thirds of the distribution typically being defined as fast and slow learners. Variables concerned with short-term memory, presentation rate, study time, distribution of practice, transfer of conceptual schemes, and instruction regarding potential sources of organization in the materials to be learned were investigated. Learning ability was found to be unrelated to short-term memory, although fast learners had a higher probability of recalling a word on the trial immediately following the trial on which it was first recalled, and they recalled more of the words in the pool to be learned than did slow learners; these findings were suggested to be reflections of individual differences in encoding processes. The use of the same or a somewhat different conceptual scheme in the learning of two successive lists appeared to have differential transfer effects for fast and slow learners. Also, pointing out potentially useful bases of organization in the material to be learned seemed to have differential transfer effects for fast and slow learners. (Author/WR)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Bureau of Research.
Authoring Institution: State Univ. of New York, Buffalo.