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ERIC Number: ED074107
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1973
Pages: 4
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
Problem Solving Ability of Disadvantaged Children Under Four Test Modes.
Houtz, John C.; And Others
A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that Ss from disadvantaged homes have poorly developed "abstract" thinking skills and that their thought can be characterized as more "concrete" or relational. Four forms of a problem-solving inventory were developed which differed in mode of presentation. The original form consisted of real-life problem situations portrayed in cartoon form and shown to Ss as slides with an accompanying answer book and audio tape of item stems and directions. The additional forms were: (1) a picture-book form with drawings in the answer book and no slides; (2) a form in which pictures were described in a short paragraph and substituted for the pictures in the answer book; and (3) a form in which 3-D full-color models based on the drawings were used. Ss were 410 second and fourth graders from two schools enrolling a large proportion of disadvantaged and advantaged children, respectively. Ss were randomly assigned to the test forms. Analyses of variance were computed to determine the effects of socioeconomic status, grade, sex, and testing mode upon performance. No significant sex differences were found. Best performance from children, both second and fourth graders, disadvantaged and advantaged, was obtained on the middle forms of the test, not on the most abstract or most concrete forms. It is suggested that the lack of support of the hypothesis may have resulted from a lack of manipulative material on the concrete tests and too much irrelevant information in the test content. (KM)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the joint session of NCME-AERA, New Orleans, Louisiana, February, 1973