ERIC Number: ED069752
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1972-Sep
Reference Count: 0
Developmental Aspects of Scientific Reasoning: Final Report.
Fletcher, Harold J.; Cox, William F., Jr.
Two experiments investigated developmental aspects of the two components of scientific reasoning: induction and deduction. In the first experiment, 98 subjects, ages 5 through 11, inductively identified four silhouetted pictures by removing, one at a time and in any sequence, as few covering pieces as possible. Results indicated that: (a) the ability to utilize incomplete information improved with increased age, but with a performance plateau between ages 8 and 11; and (b) the ability to expose information improved with age while the number of verbalized hypotheses remained relatively constant. In the second experiment, 120 subjects, ages 9 through 14, either utilized their own (Master) exposure sequence or followed (slaved) that of an age, sex, and IQ paired subject to inductively identify six, 36-cell symmetrical patterns of X's and 0's. Deductive cell predictions improved with increased age and were similarly accurate for both subject groups. For pattern inductions, which also improved with increased age, slaved subjects generally hypothesized earlier, more often, and more correctly with less information than did master subjects. Results are analyzed from cognitive and developmental orientations, and implications are offered for research and educational practices. (Author)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Center for Educational Research and Development (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Florida State Univ., Tallahassee.