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ERIC Number: ED069096
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1972-May
Pages: 61
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
ISBN: N/A
ISSN: N/A
The Use of Group and Individual Reinforcement Contingencies in the Modification of Social Withdrawal. Report No. 6.
Walker, Hill M.; Hops, Hyman
Investigated was the effectiveness of various reinforcement contingencies in diminishing social withdrawal in children, which is defined in terms of low rates of social interaction. Ss were three socially withdrawn first and second graders in three different regular classes, as determined by scores on the Walker Problem Behavior Identification Checklist. A behavioral coding system was developed for observing and recording social interactions in the classroom. Following training of the withdrawn child in social interaction skills using a symbolic modeling procedure, the S was reinforced (earned points) when she got a peer to initiate to her in Experiment I; in Experiment II, the peer group was trained and then earned points for each initiation by the S to a peer; Experiment III was a combination of I and II. Results showed that individual token reinforcement, group token reinforcement, and a combination of individual and group reinforcement were all effective in increasing the social interaction rate of withdrawn Ss, with the combined procedures in Experiment III producing the most dramatic changes in rate. (KW)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Oregon Univ., Eugene. Dept. of Special Education.