ERIC Number: ED068408
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1970-May
Attitudes in Civic Education in Several Countries: Development of Cross-National Scales.
Oppenheim, A. N.
This paper covers the processes of developing an assessment tool to evaluate children's achievement in Civic Education throughout the world. Problems established prior to the study included: 1) uncertainty about a "common core"; 2) the need for special attitude measures as well as knowledge tests; 3) strong out-of-school influences on a child's political socialization; and 4) terminology with political overtones creating difficulties in conceptualization. The development of measures of both the cognitive and the affective domain followed similar stages: A detailed conceptual framework was drawn up, based on content analysis of country documents and pilot interviews; a variety of instruments were designed using different questioning techniques; and the sets of questionnaires were tried, tested, and revised through pilot stages. One major finding showed that political awareness and perception of community develop only gradually in children. Greater unity than expected was revealed among countries toward attitudes and values. Steps of development are discussed, problems with questioning techniques and solutions are examined, and many sets of questions are included to illustrate how final measuring techniques were created. As the result of pre-testing and analysis, a shortened and improved set of questionnaires was finalized for the evaluation set for 1970. (JMB)
Descriptors: Affective Measures, Citizen Role, Citizenship, Citizenship Responsibility, Civics, Cognitive Measurement, Comparative Testing, Elementary Education, Evaluation, Measurement Techniques, Political Attitudes, Political Socialization, Public Affairs Education, Social Influences, Student Attitudes
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Hamburg (West Germany).