ERIC Number: ED067442
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1972-Aug
Reference Count: 0
Effective Reinforcement for Achievement Behaviors in Disadvantaged Children: The First Year.
Sears, Pauline S.
This report describes the results of the first year of a five-year study whose overall aims are twofold: (1) to discover classroom strategies that can improve students' achievement, their self concept, and their belief in their own ability to control the type of reinforcement they receive in school; and (2) to develop procedures for training teachers to employ these strategies. The specific aims of the first year were to select instruments to assess the attitudes and classroom behavior of both children and teachers, and to ascertain the relationships, in a small sample of classrooms, between characteristic teacher behaviors and children's end-of-year achievement and attitudes. The sample was composed of six third-grade classes and their six teachers from a low-income, predominantly black district; measures were taken early in and at the end of the school year. Since the sample for the first year of the study was small, the results described here are considered to be tentative. Evidence from the first year suggests that an individualized style of teaching, as contrasted with group instruction, significantly increases students' verbal achievement; individualized teaching appears to be especially effective with those children with a relatively positive self concept to start with. The development of such a self concept and a belief in internal control of reinforcement appears to be more likely among children who are well regarded socially by teachers and peers. (Author)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Center for Research and Development in Teaching.