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ERIC Number: ED063429
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1972-Mar-27
Pages: 16
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Counseling Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States.
Vontress, Clemmont
The purpose of this paper is to discuss in brief six racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States, in order to demonstrate how selected cultural variables may intrude in the counseling relationship. American Indians present such problems as language difficulties, taciturnity, and suspiciousness. In working with Americans of African descent, the counselor is apt to encounter two kinds of problems, the first related to the counseling process and the second related to the product, goal, or outcome. Because of long geographical isolation and strong resistance to change, residents of Appalachia may be considered an ethnic minority. They, in the counseling relationship, present cultural barriers related to listening, personalism, and language. Spanish heritage groups introduce a language barrier, demand for respect, machismo, and suspicion as sources of difficulty in counseling. Since American Jews constitute a cultural community, the counselor unfamiliar with the ethos of the group may be ineffectual helping them. To be effective, the non-Japanese counselor needs to understand several aspects of the Japanese American personality: envy and shame, modesty and reserve, and generation differences. (Author/JM)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A