ERIC Number: ED062669
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1972-Apr
Reference Count: 0
Effect of Early School Failure Experiences on Self-Image Development and Implications for School Counselors.
Hamachek, Don E.
This paper basically addressed itself to the question of why so many young people drop out of school. It appears that the great majority drop out because they simply cannot tolerate more failure and the commensurate feelings of low self-worth and self-esteem. It was emphasized that success experiences for elementary school youngsters are important because they can be numbered among those positive early happenings upon which an increasingly more complex psychological superstructure can be built. The negative effects of elementary school letter grades were discussed and it was noted that low marks function more as a threat of failure than as a motivation for improvement. It was concluded on the basis of both clinical and empirical evidence that the effects of early school failure experiences have long-term consequences for both a child's subsequent achievement in school and eventual mental health. Six major implications for school counselors are listed. (BW/Author)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: Michigan State Univ., East Lansing.
Note: Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association in Chicago, Illinois on April 3-7, 1972