ERIC Number: ED059629
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1972-Mar
Reference Count: N/A
The Systematic Development of Instruction: An Overview and Basic Guide to the Literature.
Twelker, Paul A.; And Others
The systems approach in education is a management tool that allows individuals to examine all aspects of a problem, to interrelate the effects of one set of decisions to another, and to optimally use the resources at hand to solve the problem. Five systems approaches which have been used in the successful development of instruction at the classroom level can be identified: the Teaching Research Systems Approach, the Michigan State University Instructional Systems Development Model, the System Approach for Education Model, the Project MINERVA Instructional Systems Design Model, and the Banathy Instructional Development System Model. All of these models include actions that fall into the categories of problem definition and organization, systems analysis and development, and system evaluation. These actions are interrelated by feedback built into the model. Each of the different systems approaches, while addressing the same task in similar ways, perform with different descriptions and language. Which model best fits the developer's needs will depend on the particular audience being addressed, or the particular emphasis desired. (Annotated bibliographic references to the present instructional systems approach literature and to further exploration in instructional development are also included.) (Author/SH)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Stanford Univ., CA. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Media and Technology.