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ERIC Number: ED057885
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1968-Dec
Pages: 21
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
Modification of Social Interaction in Five-Year-Olds: A Comparison of Training Paradigms Based on Reinforcement, Modeling, Rule Conformity, or Cooperation.
Nelson, Linden; Madsen, Millard C.
To understand the developmental bases of moral-rational behavior in children, the effectiveness of four training paradigms in modifying social behavior was compared. The specific behavior studied was that of taking-turns in situations where mutual assistance was necessary in order for either of two children to receive prizes. The four training paradigms were: (1) reinforcement treatment--children took turns in helping each other get prizes, the reward being one child received a prize on each trial, as well as verbal approval; (2) modeling treatment--children observed adult models taking-turns in getting prizes; (3) rule conformity treatment--the experimenter labeled turn-taking, explained how to take-turns, and instructed the children to take-turns; and (4) the cooperation treatment--this emphasized "No one gets prizes unless you help each other" and "If you take-turns, you will both get prizes." The subject were 69 matched pairs of 4- or 5-year-old children randomly selected for five two-person games during four experimental sessions on four days. The effectiveness of the training was measured by the degree to which it was transferred to new situations. Analysis of the data collected show that teaching a concept of cooperation (prizes can be obtained only by taking turns) was the only method that consistently led to more cooperative interaction in new situations. (DB)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Economic Opportunity, Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: California Univ., Los Angeles.