ERIC Number: ED057553
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1971-May
Reference Count: 0
Effects of Contingent Music on Retarded Childrens' Performance on Addition Problems. Final Report.
Cotter, Vance W.; Spradlin, Joseph E.
In the first of three studies, A Nonverbal Technique for Studying Music Preference, a free operant technique was used for determining the type of music most preferred, and therefore most likely to function as a reinforcer, for 66 retarded children (ages 9-20, IQ range 34-69). In the second study, Effects of Noncontingent Music on Addition Performance, baseline rate of addition computation was determined over four sessions for 38 retarded children (ages 8-18, IQ 35-89). During each session 5-minute periods of preferred music alternated with 5 minutes of silence. Performance was better during silence than during noncontingent music for the majority (27) of the subjects. In the third study, Effects of Contingent Music on Retarded Children's Performance of Addition Computations, during the contingent music sessions preferred music was obtained for a subject's predetermined media inter-response time when the key associated with the correct answer to a machine-produced addition problem was pressed. Control conditions in three experiments were silence, noncontingent music, and contingent white noise. Results showed greater increase in computation rates per session during contingent music than during control sessions. (KW)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Kansas Univ., Lawrence. Bureau of Child Research.; Parsons State Hospital and Training Center, KS.