ERIC Number: ED056343
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1971-Sep
Reference Count: 0
Counter-Aggression as a Function of Physical Aggression: Reciprocity for Harm Done.
Helm, Bob; And Others
Sixty males received either one, 5, or 9 electric shocks of varying magnitude from a confederate during a 10-trial probability estimation task. Following initial trials, subject and confederate reversed roles, and subjects were permitted equal opportunity to counter-aggress against the confederate. One-half the subjects had been forewarned of role reversal, while the remainder had not. Results indicated that frequency of reciprocated shock (counter-aggression) was a direct and linear function of frequency of initial aggression delivered. Also, the low-frequency aggressor was over-punished and the high-frequency aggressor under-punished, demonstrating a curious but apparently reliable phenomenon consistent with the Berkowitz and Daniels' studies (1964). Post-impressions of the confederate indicated that frequent aggressors were perceived as less attractive and esteemed than infrequent aggressors, yet as more active and potent. (Author/TA)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.; National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: State Univ. of New York, Albany.