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ERIC Number: ED053908
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1968
Pages: 165
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: N/A
Children's Understanding of Negation as a Logical Operation in a Classification Task.
Feldman, Sarah Shirley Brown
Negation as a logical operation was studied in a block sorting task in which children aged three through seven had to identify the set of not-X and not-XY from a domain of 18 blocks varying in shape and color. Seven experiments were carried out in which number of correct responses, error types, and response latencies were analyzed. For negation applied to one attribute commands, the most common errors were the responses in which children gave only one of the disjoint subsets of the requested complementary set, and the part responses, in which not all the required blocks were given, but both of the disjoint subsets were represented. For the two attribute commands, frequent responses included ignoring the negative, and misplacing the negative so that children responded to not-XY command with X not-Y objects. By giving some X or XY commands first, performance on the not-X or not-XY commands was not improved. Three studies investigated the effects of the number of objects in the complementary set, the composition in terms of number of subsets in the complementary set, and the effect of familiarity and the concomitant ease of labeling of experimental materials. It was found that the experimental manipulation had little effect on the three, six, and seven year olds. However, experimental manipulation was important for the four and five year olds. The larger the complementary set when the domain contained 18 blocks, the more errors the children made. (JG)
University Microfilms, P. O. Box 1764, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 (Order No. 69-219, M-$3.00 X-$7.60)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University