ERIC Number: ED049250
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1970
Reference Count: N/A
Use of Metaphor to Induce Innovative Thinking in Fourth Grade Children.
Holstein, Barbara I.
To analyze the use of metaphor in inducing innovative thinking in fourth grade children, two series of metaphorical activities were developed--the first asking children to compare given stimuli to a variety of other things, the second asking children to become other things (e.g., doorknobs). Oral and written responses were elicited from five children used in a pilot study and from 15 children who comprised the experimental group. Each child worked alone with the researcher for eight 30-minute lessons over a 4 week period. All sessions were tape recorded, transcribed and written up as case studies. An analysis of data for originality, elaboration, fluency, flexibility, coherence, and spontaneous direct analogy count showed that (1) spoken responses improved significantly only in the area of elaboration, and in all instances, other than flexibility, the children improved in their spoken responses; (2) statistically significant gains were made on all factors of written composition; and (3) spontaneity, depth of feeling, and ingenuity apparent in oral responses did not carry over into the children's writing. It was concluded that exercises utilizing metaphorical language served the purpose of improving free and innovative writing and speaking. (Author/MF)
Descriptors: Creative Writing, Creativity, Elementary Education, Grade 4, Innovation, Metaphors, Speech Communication, Speech Skills, Spontaneous Behavior, Writing (Composition), Writing Skills
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Note: Ed.D. Dissertation, Boston University School of Education