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ERIC Number: ED048369
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1971-Feb
Pages: 6
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
Can Behavioral Objectives be Open-Ended?
Lawrence, Gordon D.
In the debate on instructional objectives, some argue for reducing all objectives to statements of student terminal behaviors, while others want open-minded objectives which allow for diverse, unpredictable outcomes. A synthesis of seemingly incompatible behavioral specification and open-endedness is proposed: (1) Behavioral objectives need not deal only with end-products of instruction; they can also focus on by-products and processes of a student's task and thus leave open the task end-product. (2) Divergent tasks contain points of convergence for which objectives can be prespecified. (3) Convergent objectives need not be achieved only through convergent tasks. (4) Specifying outcomes of instruction as measurables is not the same as making objectives and measurements isomorphic. (5) Evaluation of individual student achievement is short-circuited by closed-end objectives. (6) Open-end objectives structure the learning situation more nearly like the way human interaction occurs in natural life settings. (Author)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York, New York, February 1971