ERIC Number: ED047790
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1970
Reference Count: N/A
Modeling by Exemplification and Instruction in Training Conservation.
Rosenthal, Ted L.; Zimmerman, Barry J.
Four experiments (involving a total of 158 children) demonstrated observationally-induced learning effects on multidimensional conservation tasks using brief, single session training. First grade samples of middle class Anglo-American, and economically disadvantaged Mexican-American children displayed gains in vicariously-induced conservation as did a separate group of 4-year-olds. On initial (imitative) task stimuli, modeling increased conservation responses which then generalized to a new set of stimulus items without further intervention. Verbal feedback praising the model's responses did not affect performance. A nonconserving model reduced conservation in initially-conserving children. A nonmodeling instruction procedure failed to modify conservation scores. The model's provision of a rule to explain stimulus equivalence improved performance when criterion response required judged equivalence plus explanation, but not when the response criterion was judged equivalence alone. Children who observed the model conserve without giving an explanation nevertheless increased their correct judgments-plus-rule responses in the imitation phase, thus demonstrating that observational learning can produce inferential thinking. Theoretical implications of the results were discussed. (Author)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: National Center for Educational Research and Development (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Educational Labs.
Authoring Institution: Arizona Univ., Tucson. Arizona Center for Early Childhood Education.