ERIC Number: ED041829
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1970
Reference Count: 0
Placement, Formative, Diagnostic, and Summative Evaluation of Classroom Learning.
Madaus, George F.; Airasian, Peter W.
This paper defines four types of classroom evaluation by comparing the evaluation types across nine dimensions: 1) function, 2) time, 3) characteristics of evidence, 4) evidence gathering techniques, 5) sampling, 6) scoring and reporting, 7) standards, 8) reliability, 9) validity. The four types of evaluation, described by the purpose a teacher has for determining, valuing, describing, or classifying some aspects of student behavior, are 1) placement evaluation used to place students according to prior achievement or personal characteristics, at the most appropriate point in an instructional sequence, in a unique instructional strategy, or with a suitable teacher; 2) formative evaluation used to provide the student and teacher with feedback on the student's progress toward mastery of relatively small units of learning to provide information that will direct subsequent teaching or study; 3) diagnostic evaluation for the identification of students whose learning or classroom behavior is being adversely affected by factors not directly related to instructional practices; 4) summative evaluation used principally to certify, assign a grade, or to attest to the student's successful completion of a relatively large unit of instruction. (Included are charts comparing the four types of evaluation on each of the nine characteristics.) (JS)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at annual meeting, AERA, 1970