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ERIC Number: ED041258
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1969
Pages: 3
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
Development of a Manipulation-Communication Scale.
Prator, Clifford H.
Teachers have been increasingly worried for more than a decade about the effectiveness of English as a second language instruction in the United States at the intermediate and advanced levels. This article investigates briefly the causes of this situation and suggests a theoretical guideline--a scale of manipulation and communication teaching techniques which would allow for a gradual and orderly transition from activities that emphasize the development of basic linguistic skills to activities designed to encourage the free communication of thought. Communicative classroom activities are defined as those that allow the student to find the words and structures he uses. Manipulative activities are those in which the student receives the words and structures from teacher, tape, or book. The movement from manipulation to communication does not have to be abrupt, and probably the shift should never be total, even in the most advanced classes. One result of the application of the scale, which would make use of Gurrey's classification of questions, might be a blurring of the sharp line separating language courses from literature courses. (AMM)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A