ERIC Number: ED039955
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1969-Aug
Reference Count: 0
Programmed Instruction as a Means of Establishing "Errorless" Learning with Kindergarten Level Children. Final Report.
Crist, Robert L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of errorless discrimination training in teaching young retarded children to pair a given letter symbol with a specific sound. A secondary objective was to determine the extent to which the letter-sound discrimination would generalize to the skill areas of omitting the desired sound when shown the letter, and of constructing the letter when the appropriate sound was presented. Subjects were 4 mentally retarded males in primary and intermediate special aid classes who were chosen because of their lack of knowledge of the sounds of letters. Subjects performed on teaching machines for 15 minutes on each of 14 consecutive school days. Each subject was alternately exposed to each of two stimulus methods. Each method provided discrimination training of letter sounds and symbols for 13 of the 26 letters in the alphabet. Pre- and post-test data showed that errorless form discrimination training was as effective as customary trial-and-error discrimination training in producing gains. However, the errorless method differed in respect to daily performance, for it generally resulted in a higher percentage of correct responses made in less time than did the trial-and-error method. The letter-sound associations which were mastered did not often generalize to related verbal skills. (Author/DR)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Bureau of Research.
Authoring Institution: Illinois State Univ., Normal.