ERIC Number: ED035946
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1969-Dec
Reference Count: 0
Transfer of Rules: The Need for Tests of Transfer in the Evaluation of Instruction. Center for the Study of Evaluation Working Paper No. 3.
Wittrock, M. C.; Jones, M. H.
The relationship between instruction and transfer was studied to determine if tests of transfer would influence evaluation of instruction differently than tests of learning of specifics. Subjects were 120 fourth graders of average intelligence. The children were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) rule treatment, (2) specific instructions treatment, (3) answered problem treatment, or (4) control group. The three experimental groups were given the same problems to solve and only the problem solving instructions were different. There were no statistically significant differences in competence in solving the specific problems among the three groups, but the rule treatment group produced the greatest degree of transfer. It was concluded that to attain the general goal of transfer, instruction associating rules with problems was preferrable to instruction which focused upon the problems without rules. Recent work lends strong support to this conclusion, but it has also been found that the level of performance on both learning and transfer tasks depends heavily on the particular tasks involved. Findings of the present study indicate the need to include transfer tests to measure outcomes of instruction if instructional goals include affecting students behavior in contexts other than those in which they were learned. (RSM)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Bureau of Research.
Authoring Institution: California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for the Study of Evaluation.