ERIC Number: ED035534
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1969-Dec
Reference Count: N/A
Fixed- and Variable-Ratio Reinforcement of Reading Performance.
George, John E.
The effects of fixed-ratio and variable-ratio reinforcement classroom reading performance was investigated. Subjects were 50 boys and 50 girls from four grade-2 classrooms of one elementary school. The subjects were divided into three reading levels, above-average, average, and below-average, and were randomly assigned to (1) a no-reinforcement group, (2) a low fixed-ratio group, (3) a high fixed-ratio group, and (4) a high variable-ratio group. Students responded to programed materials during a 5-week period. Reinforcement consisted of red foil stars which were exchanged for pennies at the end of each 60-minute session. The pennies could be kept or used in a candy vending machine. An analysis of absolute differences revealed a highly significant trend. Above-average readers responded better to reinforcement and better to frequent reinforcement than low frequency reinforcement. Consistency of reinforcement was also preferred. Average and below-average readers seemed to favor the reinforcement group in which neither the above-average, average, nor below-average subjects received rewards for their reading performance. Tables are included. (WB)
Descriptors: Grade 2, High Achievement, Learning Motivation, Low Achievement, Positive Reinforcement, Programed Instructional Materials, Reading Ability, Reading Research
Nineteenth National Reading Conference Yearbook
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper presented at the National Reading Conference, Atlanta, Ga., Dec. 4-6, 1969