ERIC Number: ED035517
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1969-Apr-3
Reference Count: 0
The Use of Redundancy by Beginning Readers.
Lott, Deborah; Cronnell, Bruce
The ability to use sequential constraints in recognizing letters in three-letter words flashed on a screen at low contrast thresholds and the relationship of this ability to grade level and reading achievement were investigated. Eighty subjects were randomly selected, 20 each from grades 1 through 4. Ten adults were also tested for comparison with the children. The 28 test stimuli were composed of 12 three-letter words and their component letters. When the letters were presented individually, the other two positions were filled with blanks. Each stimulus was initially projected at below-contrast threshold, and contrast was gradually increased until recognition was possible. There was an increase in mean gain for both words and letters with grade level, with a slight drop for adults, but these differences were not statistically significant. A zero correlation was found between Stanford Achievement Tests reading subscores in grades 2, 3, and 4 and recognition gain. There was a significant relationship between the difficulty in recognizing a particular letter within a word and the difficulty in recognizing the other letters in the word. A higher proportion of like-class confusions (vowels confused with other vowels) were made in the word condition than in the letter condition. References are included. (CM)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Bureau of Research.
Authoring Institution: Southwest Regional Educational Lab., Inglewood, CA.