ERIC Number: ED035442
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 1969
Reference Count: N/A
Paper-and-Pencil Versus Concrete Performance of Normals and Retardates on the ETS Written Exercises.
Stephens, Will Beth; Kowatrakul, Surang
Piaget's conception of cognitive development as the development of a set of skills resulting from interaction with the environment has had a great effect on contemporary educational theory and spurred the Educational Testing Service (ETS) to develop a set of written exercises based on this concept. Piaget's emphasis, however, was on concrete manipulation and the ETS exercises are in written paper-and-pencil form. This study sought to test concrete forms as opposed to the forms ETS offered. The subjects were 48 retarded and 40 normal children all matched for mental age at 5 to 7 years. The average chronological age of the retardates was 10 years 2 months. Concrete forms of the written exercises were devised and administered to a random half of each group. The remaining subjects took the regular written form. The results showed that both retardates and normals performed significantly better on the concrete form in every sub-area. This finding supported Piaget's theory that, as far as possible, children should first be taught through direct manipulation of their environment and later progress to symbolic forms of instruction. Findings also indicated that the retardates were inferior to normals on ETS communication skills. (MH)
Descriptors: Cognitive Development, Cognitive Tests, Comparative Analysis, Manipulative Materials, Test Construction, Testing
American Psychological Association, 1201 17th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 (Division 15, $2.50)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.