ERIC Number: ED035023
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1966
Reference Count: N/A
Stating the Goals of Counseling. Monograph No. One.
Krumboltz, John D.
Observable behavior change is a more useful goal in counseling than self-acceptance or self-understanding. Goals should be stated as specific behavior changes desired by each client, compatible with the counselor's values, and externally observable. Behavioral goals would result in: (a) a clearer anticipation of what counseling could accomplish, (b) a better integration of counseling psychology with psychological theory and research, (c) a more effective search for more effective techniques, and (d) the use of different criteria for assessing the outcomes of counseling with different clients. Self understanding is an unsatisfactory goal, because: (a) whether the client has attained it depends on the theoretical orientation of the counselor, (b) it is not necessarily accompanied by overt behavior change, (c) behavior change can occur without self-understanding, (d) self-understanding is unverifiable by direct observation, and (e) it is seldom the goal desired by the client. Self-acceptance suffers some of the same disadvantages of self-understanding and in addition tends to depreciate the value of self-improvement, implies inflexibility in human behavior and can only be assessed by a client's self-report. (Author/RM)
Descriptors: Behavior Change, Behavior Modification, Behavioral Objectives, Counseling, Counseling Effectiveness, Counseling Objectives, Self Concept
California Personnel and Guidance Association, 654 East Commonwealth Avenue, Fullerton, California 92631 ($1.00 per Copy for Members; $1.50 per Copy for Non-members)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: California Counseling and Guidance Association, Los Angeles.; Stanford Univ., CA.