ERIC Number: ED034583
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1969
Reference Count: N/A
Training Elementary Reading Skills Through Reinforcement and Fading Techniques.
Hauserman, Norma; McIntire, Roger
This research project was designed to explore suitable operant methods to assure successful acquisition of some initial formal reading skills by first and second graders. The subjects were 12 pupils diagnosed as predicted reading failures by failing scores on four or more subtests of a 10 test battery suggested by DeHirsch, Jansky, and Langford (1966). Fading and reinforcement techniques were employed to bring about the desired terminal reading behavior of correctly identifying any of 80 stimulus words, printed either on cards or within story context. Common preprimers were used to measure terminal reading behavior. It was hypothesized that near errorless reading of these words in a variety of story contexts would demonstrate successful early reading behavior. Results showed that both concrete reinforcements and fading techniques were effective in reducing high error rates emitted during early reading attempts. Fading techniques were crucial in enabling the student to continue to respond correctly during the transition from large print with pictorial cues to small type unaccompanied by such cues. Concrete reinforcement, with social reinforcement, compared to social reinforcement only, was most effective when combined with fading procedures. (JF)
Descriptors: Associative Learning, Grade 1, Grade 2, Operant Conditioning, Reading Improvement, Reading Research, Reinforcement, Social Reinforcement, Word Recognition
American Psychological Association, 1201 17th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 (Division 15, $2.50)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
Note: Paper is reprinted from the "Proceedings, 77th Annual Convention, APA, 1969," Division 15 which contains 48 pages, 30 presentations