ERIC Number: ED031933
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1968-Jun
Reference Count: 0
Redundancy in Simultaneously Presented Audio-Visual Message Elements as a Determinant of Recall. Final Report.
Baldwin, Thomas F.
Man seems unable to retain different information from different senses or channels simultaneously; one channel gains full attention. However, it is hypothesized that if the message elements arriving simultaneously from audio and visual channels are redundant, man will retain the information. An attempt was made to measure redundancy in the audio and visual elements and in their relationship by showing a film clipping to groups who recorded their recall. Confidence can be placed in the two following hypothoses: the recall of the visual element in a message where audio and visual elements are presented simultaneously is positively related to the visual redundancy; the recall of both audio and visual elements which are presented simultaneously in a message is positively related to the redundancy in the audio-visual relationships. The other four hypotheses, also dealing with the relationship of audio-visual element recall to redundancy, favored the hypotheses; but the results were not conclusive. These findings imply that audiences lose much television and film information. (MM)
Descriptors: Audiovisual Aids, Audiovisual Instruction, Auditory Perception, Aural Learning, Educational Technology, Film Production Specialists, Film Study, Instructional Design, Instructional Films, Instructional Improvement, Media Research, Multimedia Instruction, Multisensory Learning, Redundancy, Repetitive Film Showings, Retention (Psychology), Verbal Learning, Visual Learning, Visual Perception
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Bureau of Research.
Authoring Institution: Michigan State Univ., East Lansing.