ERIC Number: ED031932
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1968-May
Reference Count: 0
An Introduction to Programming. Monograph Number 14.
Berger, Robert J.; And Others
An undertaking designed to teach the fundamental concepts of programing makes the learner learn frame writing by means of frames. A sliding card gradually discloses the two basic sequences which programs usually follow--the linear and the branching sequences. A branching sequence may be normal or remedial, a frame regular or mainstream. A linear sequence may have a wash ahead or a wash back. A typical program frame comprises a stimulus, a response and a feedback. Prompts or cues, which are used to stimulate a response, may be formal or thematic. A frame may be intermediate or terminal, and cues should be faded out gradually when the frames are terminal. The programer must avoid copying frames and overprompting. RULEG (rule first and example afterwards) and EGRUL (the reverse process) are two general programing strategies. A response may be overt or covert and must be related to the instructional content. A stimulus may be generalized or discriminative, and the programer must control both. He must deal, not only with response acquisition, but also with its maintenance. Chaining, which may refer forwards or backwards, is when instruction includes sequencing of several tasks. (GO)
Descriptors: Autoinstructional Aids, Branching, Classroom Techniques, Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Programs, Educational Technology, Individualized Instruction, Individualized Programs, Instructional Materials, Instructional Programs, Linear Programing, Programed Instruction, Programing, Prompting, Sequential Approach, Teaching Methods
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Bureau of Research.
Authoring Institution: Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Classroom Learning Lab.