ERIC Number: ED031831
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1969-Feb
Reference Count: 0
Short-Term Retention in Normal and Retarded Children as a Function of Memory Load and List Structure.
Calfee, Robert C.
Studies of recall and recognition short-term memory (STM) were reviewed, and a series of studies of serial recognition memory of normal and retarded children was described. In experiments using a recall procedure there were decrements in initial performance level with decreasing age and IQ but less evidence that forgetting occurred at a faster rate in younger and less intelligent children. Recognition memory was found to be relatively constant over a wide range of age and IQ. Evidence was presented that ability to encode and organize stimulus material depended on age and IQ. Retarded children were especially poor at adopting efficient encoding strategies and seemed relatively incapable of making use of the organizational structure of a list to facilitate storage and recall. Detailed analyses showed considerable response bias in children's recognition behavior, consistent primacy and recency effects when bias was taken into account, and evidence that memory for individual items was not all-or-none. Except for response biases and forgetting rate, recognition memory processes of normal and retarded children appeared to be identical to those of adults. (Author/RJ)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
Authoring Institution: Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Research and Development Center for Cognitive Learning.