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ERIC Number: ED029510
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: N/A
Pages: 35
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Soviet Psychology of Set as Related to Parameters of the Educational Process.
Hertzog, Raymond L.; And Others
Western psychologists define "set" as a group of items, a disposition toward certain stimuli or certain responses, and the establishment of habitual actions. D. N. Uznadze explains "set" by postulating a general tendency toward habitual action, but qualifies this by stating that the tendency is governed by special factors within the individual. The predisposition to respond in a certain way is determined by the experiences and character of the individual. The internal organization of the individual which organizes the experiences and creates the illusion of similarity between situations is, according to Uznadze, unitary; it cannot be categorized as motor or mental. Uznadze's experiments deal with illusions which are prepared by experience. The majority of subjects, after having been asked to choose between spheres unequal in size a number of times, continued to perceive equal pairs as unequal. Uznadze also induced "set" in subjects under hypnosis, thus eliminating the influence of intent. The cognitive process is involved, however, through "objectification." This process enables us to experience something as an object, and is closely linked with "set." Their interaction keeps our subjective reality close to objective reality by a series of approximations. (RM)
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