ERIC Number: ED029171
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1969-Jul
Reference Count: 0
A Comparative Study of the Literature on the Dissemination and Utilization of Scientific Knowledge.
Havelock, Ronald G.; And Others
This report provides a framework for understanding the processes of innovation, dissemination, and knowledge utilization (D&U) and it reviews the relevant literature in education and other fields of practice within this framework. D&U is viewed as a transfer of messages by various media between resource systems and users. Major sections analyze characteristics of individuals and organizations which inhibit or facilitate this transfer. The process is interpreted at four levels; the individual, the interpersonal, the organization, and the social system. Additional chapters analyze messages, media, phase models, and knowledge-linking roles. Models of D&U can be grouped into three perspectives: (1) "Research, Development and Diffusion", (2) "Social Interaction", and (3) "Problem Solving." A "linkage" model is proposed as a synthesis. Successful linkage is achieved when user and resource system interact collaboratively, simulating each others' problem solving behavior. Seven factors highly related to successful D&U are: (1) linkage to internal and external resources; (2) degree of structure in resource system, user, message and medium; (3) openness of user and resource systems; (4) capacity to marshall diverse resources; (5) reward; (6) proximity to resources and other users; and (7) synergy, i.e., the variety, persistence, and synchronization of messages and media. Implications are drawn for research, development, practice, and policy. (Author)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Bureau of Research.
Authoring Institution: Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Center for Research on Utilization of Scientific Knowledge.