ERIC Number: ED026853
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1964-Jan-31
Reference Count: 0
Factors Affecting the Design of Effective Teaching Machine Programs; January 1, 1961 - January 31, 1964. Final Report.
Krumboltz, John D.
A series of studies investigating effects of alternative methods of writing, arranging, and responding in programed instruction are presented and the results are summarized to provide guidelines for use in program preparation. In a comparison of overt and covert response modes no differences were obtained on an immediate post-program criterion test; however, overt responses were found more effective on a delayed retention measure. When an overt response was required, it was more effective given as a sentence in context than as a single word. Considering the frequency and scheduling of reinforcers, increases in reinforcement decreased error rate on an immediate posttest and increased student interest in and perceived value of the program. Studies of cueing and examining procedures indicated that typographical cues improved performance when a program was difficult but had an interfering effect on moderate or easy programs and that increases in the number and plausibility of multiple-choice alternatives improved retention generally. In a review of the entire study series, it was noted that error rate during learning was not related to any retention measure and therefore appeared to be an inappropriate criterion of program adequacy. Criteria considered appropriate for program evaluation and research planning are discussed. (SS)
Descriptors: Evaluation Criteria, Intermode Differences, Programed Instruction, Programed Instructional Materials, Programed Tutoring, Prompting, Redundancy, Reinforcement, Research Criteria, Responses, Retention (Psychology)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Sponsor: Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC. Educational Media Branch.
Authoring Institution: Stanford Univ., CA. School of Education.