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ERIC Number: ED025827
Record Type: RIE
Publication Date: 1968-Aug
Pages: 30
Abstractor: N/A
Reference Count: 0
Complex Organizations: The Implementation of Major Organizational Innovations.
Gross, Neal; And Others
Based upon selected findings of a case study of an elementary school which attempted to implement a major organizational innovation--the redefinition of the teacher's role in an individualized instructional program--factors were identified that help to explain why implementation efforts fail. The laboratory school, with a positive climate for educational change, contained nearly 200 pupils and 11 teachers in a depressed area with 60% Negro residents. In contrast to previous studies which have identified "resistance to change" as the main cause of an innovation's failure, analysis of the case study's findings determined that a number of important variables influence the implementation of directed change. These variables include (1) clarity of an innovation as perceived by organizational members, (2) capability of members to perform it, (3) availability of necessary tools and equipment, and (4) compatibility of organizational conditions with the innovation. The administrator's role is particularly important in establishing conditions conducive to innovation and in rewarding innovative efforts. Resistance can develop over time as a consequence of frustrations members encounter in attempting to implement an innovation. From the study's findings a number of suggestions are drawn to assist in the implementation of organizational innovations. (JK)
Publication Type: N/A
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Paper to be presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Sociological Association (Boston, Massachusetts, August, 1968).